Photometry and radiometry

Uncertainties

Unless otherwise specified, the uncertainties quoted in the descriptions below are expanded uncertainties representing a confidence level of approximately 95 percent. They were obtained by multiplying the standard overall uncertainty (one standard deviation) by a coverage factor of k=2.

Facilities

The primary standard for realizing luminous intensity (candela) is an NRC-built electrically calibrated thermal detector (absolute radiometer) equipped with V(λ)-correcting filters. Secondary standards of luminous intensity and total luminous flux are in the form of carefully selected lamps traceable to the NRC absolute radiometers. The primary scales of spectral transmittance, reflectance and gloss are based on specially built NRC reference instruments.

Calibration facilities include:

  • cryogenic and room-temperature absolute radiometers for first level spectral calibrations of transfer standard detectors;
  • automatic spectroradiometers;
  • lamp aging facilities;
  • photometric benches and an integrating sphere;
  • an automated spectral responsivity measurement facility;
  • automated detector characterization facilities for linearity, spatial and angular variation of detector responsivity;
  • a reference glossmeter;
  • an absolute reflectometer for ISO 2469 calibrations of diffuse reflectance;
  • a two-monochromator reference spectrofluorimeter, for calibrations of fluorescent reflecting materials;
  • several automated spectrophotometers equipped with a variety of sampling accessories;
  • an observation booth equipped with artificial daylight for visual assessments of colour differences between coloured materials; and
  • a computer-controlled CRT-based visual colorimeter for research into improved colorimetry.

Fees for service

If you wish to order a calibration service, please request a quote from the following technical contact:

Dr. Joanne Zwinkels
Telephone: 613-993-9363
Email: Joanne.Zwinkels@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

Note that the calibration costs quoted DO NOT include shipping, insurance or the cost of a customs broker. The client must arrange and pay for these services separately.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-00-00 Custom photometric or radiometric metrology services Fee on request
A33-06-00-01 Handling fee. A charge is levied for any instrument found to be unsuitable for calibration. This fee covers opening, inspection and return and is based on the work done prior to discovery of the fault. $250

Photometry

Photometry of incandescent lamps

The NRC scale of luminous intensity is based on the international 1979 CGPM definition of the candela using NRC absolute radiometers and is maintained on a group of specially selected Osram Wi41/G incandescent lamps. The standard uncertainty (1σ) of the primary luminous intensity scale is 0.5 percent. The NRC scale of luminous flux is based on measurements traceable to an NRC platinum blackbody source and is maintained on a set of 200 Watt and 500 Watt GEC incandescent lamps. The standard uncertainty (1σ) of the primary luminous flux scale is 1.5 percent. The following services describe routine photometric measurements that are available. Other specialized photometric tests may be performed upon special request.

Lumen standards - for use in sphere photometers

These services cover the determination of the luminous flux (lumens) from one or more incandescent lamps at one voltage or current per lamp, up to 1000 watts, as follows:

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-01-01 One lamp at one voltage or current. $2,020
A33-06-01-02 Each additional lamp of the same size and type, supplied at the same time and calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-01-01. $400

Luminous intensity standards - for use on a horizontal bar photometer

The horizontal luminous intensity (candelas) of one or more incandescent lamps is determined in a fixed direction at one or more voltages or currents per lamp, as follows:

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-01-03 One lamp at one voltage or current. $2,020
A33-06-01-04 Each additional lamp of the same size and type, supplied at the same time and calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-01-03. $400
A33-06-01-05 Each additional voltage or current, requested at the same time as A33-06-01-03, per lamp. $605

Aging of incandescent lamps

To ensure that lamps are stable enough to be used as standards, they should be operated or aged for a number of hours. These services cover the aging of lamps in a controlled environment, as follows:

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-01-06 Initial set-up charge for one lamp. $1,005
A33-06-01-07 Set-up charge for each additional lamp of the same size and type as A33-06-01-06. $200
A33-06-01-08 Hourly charge for aging each lamp (A33-06-01-06 and A33-06-01-07). $15

Colour temperature of incandescent lamps

The colour temperature or the voltage for a specified colour temperature on one or more incandescent lamps can be determined within the range 2000 kelvin to 2856 kelvin, as follows:

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-02-01 Colour temperature of one lamp or the voltage for one colour temperature of one lamp. $2,020
A33-06-02-02 Each additional lamp at the same colour temperature measured at the same time as A33-06-02-01. $400
A33-06-02-03 Each additional colour temperature on the same lamp measured at the same time as A33-06-02-01. $185

Calibration of photometric instruments and sources

Illuminance meters and luminance meters are calibrated photometrically on a custom basis using NRC luminous intensity standards. Special luminance tests are also available for displays, sphere sources and other luminance sources.

Photometry of solid state lighting (SSL) modules

Photometric and spectroradiometic calibrations and measurements are available for user-supplied LED and SSL modules upon special request. LED-based sources may be calibrated photometrically on a custom basis using NRC total luminous flux standards and luminous intensity standards. Special illuminance and luminance measurements, including goniometric and spatial measurements, are available.

If you wish to order a calibration service, please request a quote from the following technical contact:

Dr. Arnold Gaertner
Telephone: 613-993-9344
Email: Arnold.Gaertner@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

Note that the calibration costs quoted DO NOT include shipping, insurance or the cost of a customs broker. The client must arrange and pay for these services separately.
Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-02-20 Illuminance meters. Fee on request
A33-06-02-30 Luminance meters. Fee on request

Spectophotometry and colorimetry

Geometric conditions of the irradiated and reflected rays in the NRC BRDF facility

Geometric conditions of the irradiated and reflected rays in the NRC BRDF facility

NRC has developed national reference instruments to provide traceability for both in-plane and out-of-plane reflectance and bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of surfaces. The NRC Robot-based BRDF facility uses a high resolution diode array spectroradiometer for rapid detection and provides the complete reflection indicatrix (3D) of reflecting samples over the spectral range of 380 nm to 780 nm. These spectral BRDF measurements provide total colour and appearance (gloss, texture, haze, etc.) management of gonioapparent or special effect coatings and pigments used in manufactured colored goods, such as cars, appliances, high-end packaging, and cosmetics, as well as applications in anti-counterfeitng, remote sensing, machine vision, cultural heritage, virtual reality and medical imaging.

Contact: Dr. Li-Lin Tay
Phone: +1 613-993-3919
E-mail: Li-Lin.Tay@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
Contact: Dr. Joanne Zwinkels
Phone: +1 613-993-9363
E-mail: Joanne.Zwinkels@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

Spectral diffuse transmittance and reflectance factors

Diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements are routinely available over the wavelength range 250 nm to 2200 nm and from 5000 cm-1 to 600 cm-1. Arrangements can also be made to calibrate samples over an extended wavelength range from 200 nm to 2500 nm, but this requires supplementary measurement/validation steps and additional charges apply.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-03-01A Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance or transmittance, 400 nm to 700 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample. $675
A33-06-03-01B Diffuse-only reflectance or transmittance, 400 nm to 700 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample. $675
A33-06-03-02A Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 850 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample. $820
A33-06-03-02B Diffuse-only reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 850 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample. $820
A33-06-03-03A Each additional sample for A33-06-03-01A. $280
A33-06-03-03B Each additional sample for A33-06-03-01B. $280
A33-06-03-03C Each additional sample for A33-06-03-02A. $535
A33-06-03-03D Each additional sample for A33-06-03-02B. $535
A33-06-03-04A Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 2500 nm at 10 nm intervals, one sample. $1,610
A33-06-03-04B Diffuse-only reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 2500 nm at 10 nm intervals, one sample. $1,610
A33-06-03-04C Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 2200 nm at 10 nm intervals, one sample. $1,495
A33-06-03-04D Diffuse-only reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 2200 nm at 10 nm intervals, one sample. $1,495
A33-06-03-04E Each additional sample of A33-06-03-04A. $920
A33-06-03-04F Each additional sample of A33-06-03-04B. $920
A33-06-03-04G Each additional sample of A33-06-03-04C. $920
A33-03-03-04H Each additional sample of A33-06-03-04D. $920
A33-06-03-05A Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance, 5000 cm-1 to 600 cm-1. $2,300
A33-06-03-05B Diffuse (non-specular) reflectance, 5000 cm-1 to 600 cm-1. $2,300
A33-06-03-05C Each additional sample for A33-06-03-05B. $1,635

Spectral regular transmittance factors

(A33-06-03-06 to A33-06-03-10E) Calibrations of regular transmittance are traceable to the NRC reference spectrophotometer, which has an uncertainty of 2.5 parts in 104 in the visible range and 4.0 parts in 104 in the near-infrared range. Routine calibrations are performed on high-precision research spectrophotometers over the wavelength range 190 nm to 3200 nm, with a best measurement capability (relative) of 0.2 percent. Services are for calibrations using monochromatic irradiation. Arrangements can be made for special setups and supplementary measurements. Additional charges may apply for non-standard measurements, such as polarizing, highly spectrally selective, high transmission density, or small size samples. Spectral regular transmittance factors are measured for specified wavelength ranges, for one or more samples, as follows:

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-03-06 From 380 nm to 760 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample. $660
A33-06-03-06A Each additional sample of A33-06-03-06. $350
A33-06-03-07 From 190 nm to 860 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample. $755
A33-06-03-07A Client-specified single wavelength (UV-VIS-NIR range). $430
A33-06-03-07B Each additional sample for A33-06-03-07. $470
A33-06-03-09 From 190 nm to 3200 nm at 10 nm intervals. $1,115
A33-06-03-10 Each additional sample (A33-06-03-09). $690
A33-06-03-10A Re-certify NIST SRM 930 filters (set of three). $800
A33-06-03-10B Re-certify NIST SRM 1930 filters (set of three). $970
A33-06-03-10C NG-11 glass filter and calibration at 4000 cm-1 to 2000 cm-1. This service includes the purchase of the glass filter. $1,615
A33-06-03-10D Wavelength absorption peaks, 250 nm to 900 nm. $805
A33-06-03-10E Wavenumber, polystyrene film, 4000 cm-1 to 800 cm-1. $1,070
A33-06-03-10F Re-certify NIST SRM 2031 filters (set of 3) at 10 wavelengths in the UV and visible range. $1,770
A33-06-03-10G Re-certify each additional filter of A33-06-03-10A, A33-06-03-10B or A33-06-03-10F (UV or visible range). $400
A33-06-03-10H Re-certify each additional wavelength of A33-06-03-10A, A33-06-03-10B or A33-06-03-10F. $200
A33-06-03-10I Calibration of metal-on-quartz UV filters (set of 5) at 5 wavelengths in the UV range. $1,770

Absolute specular reflectance - Near-normal incidence

The following services measure the absolute specular reflectance at near-normal incidence (usually 8°) for one or more samples for specified wavelength ranges and for a minimum and maximum sample size of 35 mm diameter and 50 mm diameter, respectively, and for a nominal reflectance exceeding 10 percent. Arrangements can be made to calibrate samples of smaller size or lower reflectance, but additional charges may apply.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-03-11A Spectral reflectance, visible range, 380 nm to 760 nm. $1,025
A33-06-03-11B Spectral reflectance, UV-Vis range, 220 nm to 850 nm. $1,210
A33-06-03-11C Spectral reflectance, Vis-NIR range, 380 nm to 2500 nm. $1,575
A33-06-03-11D Spectral reflectance, UV-Vis-NIR range, 220 nm to 2500 nm. $1,760
A33-06-03-12A Each additional sample for A33-06-03-11A. $795
A33-06-03-12B Each additional sample for A33-06-03-11B. $880
A33-06-03-12C Each additional sample for A33-06-03-11C. $1,010
A33-06-03-12D Each additional sample for A33-06-03-11D. $1,150

Calculation of colorimetric quantities

In the following services, various colorimetric quantities are calculated from the spectrophotometric data. Calculations of other quantities (e.g. solar transmittance and reflectance) are available upon special request.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-03-13 Tristimulus values and chromaticity coordinate's (one sample). $145
A33-06-03-14 Colour differences (one sample). $220
A33-06-03-14A CIE whiteness and CIE tint, ISO brightness. Fee on request

Calibration of white reflectance standards according to ISO 2469 and ISO 2470 standards

The following services provide for the calibration of white reflectance standards for the pulp and paper industry, according to ISO 2469 and ISO 2470 specifications.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-03-15A Diffuse reflectance, 380 - 760 nm and ISO brightness. $1,390
A33-06-03-15B Diffuse reflectance, 380 - 1100 nm and ISO brightness. $1,760
A33-06-03-16A Additional sample of A33-06-03-15A. $870
A33-06-03-16B Additional sample of A33-06-03-15B. $970

Spectral radiance factors, 0°:45° geometry

The NRC scale of absolute 0°:45° spectral radiance factors is traceable to master NRC pressed tablets of polytetrafluoroethylene calibrated for 45°:0° geometry by NIST. The expanded (k=2) uncertainty of these NRC calibrations is better than 0.7 percent.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-03-26 Bidirectional radiance factors, 360 - 760 nm. $930
A33-06-03-27 Additional sample of A33-06-03-26. $475
A33-06-03-28 Bidirectional radiance factors, 360 - 1100 nm. $1,120
A33-06-03-29 Additional sample of A33-06-03-28. $565

Calibrated stainless steel reflectance standard

NRC calibrates and issues a stainless steel reflectance standard for use in calibrating the specular reflectance scale of spectrophotometers.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-03-40 Stainless steel reflectance standard and calibration at 250 nm to 2500 nm, 8° incidence. Calibrations at other geometries are available upon special request. $2,570
A33-06-03-42 Calibration at oblique incidence, specified spectral range. Fee on request

Absolute specular reflectance at 10° to 80° incidence
(s- and p-polarized)

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-03-50 380 nm to 780 nm, one geometry, one sample. $1,210
A33-06-03-50A Additional sample for A33-06-03-50. $845
A33-06-03-51 220 nm to 380 nm, one geometry, one sample. $1,210
A33-06-03-51A Additional sample for A33-06-03-51. $845
A33-06-03-52 220 nm to 780 nm, one geometry, one sample. $1,880
A33-06-03-52A Additional sample for A33-06-03-52. $1,045
A33-06-03-54 380 nm to 2300 nm, one geometry, one sample. $1,850
A33-06-03-54A Additional sample for A33-06-03-54. $1,165
A33-06-03-56 220 nm to 2300 nm, one geometry, one sample. $2,645
A33-06-03-56A Additional sample for A33-06-03-56. $1,725

Spectroradiometry

Spectral irradiance calibrations are available on user-supplied lamps from 250 nm to 2500 nm.

The NRC scale of spectral irradiance from 300 nm to 700 nm is based on the world-mean scale resulting from a 1973 international comparison of spectral irradiance scales; the scale from 700 nm to 1600 nm is based upon NRC absolute radiometers; and the ranges from 250 nm to 300 nm and 1600 nm to 2500 nm are based upon NIST spectral irradiance standards.

Spectral radiance calibrations are also available on user-supplied lamps. The spectral radiance calibrations are derived from NRC spectral irradiance standards or NIST spectral radiance standards.

Total Spectral Flux, Spectral Irradiance and Spectral Radiance calibrations are available for user-supplied LED and SSL modules upon special request.

Spectral irradiance (incandescent lamp)

The following services cover measurements in specified wavelength ranges of the spectral irradiance, from an incandescent lamp at a fixed distance and in a given direction.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-04-01 350 to 1100 nm at 10 nm intervals, one lamp. $4,725
A33-06-04-02 800 to 1600 nm at 10 nm intervals, one lamp. $4,725
A33-06-04-03 From 300 nm to 350 nm. Fee on request
A33-06-04-04 From 1600 nm to 2500 nm. Fee on request
A33-06-04-05 Additional Lamp of each of above four. Fee on request

Spectral radiance (of a uniform incandescent lamp)

These services measure the spectral radiance of a uniform incandescent lamp, in a given direction, for specified wavelength ranges and intervals.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-04-09 From 380 nm to 780 nm at 2 nm intervals. $3,295
A33-06-04-10 From 380 to 1060 nm at 4 nm intervals. $3,295

Spectral fluorescence calibration services

Total spectral radiance factors, two monochromator method

The measurement facilities in spectrophotometry include two reference instruments based upon the two-monochromator method and conforming to CIE and ASTM colorimetry standards for absolute radiometric calibrations of fluorescent reflecting materials using different illumination and viewing geometries. The NRC Reference Spectrofluorimeter employs a measurement geometry of 45° annular illumination and 0° viewing (45°a:0°), and an operating range of 250 nm to 1050 nm. The NRC Reference Goniospectrofluorimeter equipped with a 300 mm diameter integrating sphere accessory employs a measurement geometry of near-normal (8°) incidence and diffuse viewing with the specular component either excluded (8°:d) or included (8°:t); its operating range is 250 nm to 850 nm. The overall uncertainty of calibrations of total and reflected radiance reflectance factors of fluorescent standards is 1 percent (excluding sample-dependent effects).

Total spectral radiance factors, bidirectional geometry (45°:0°) calibration services

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-04-32 From 300 nm to 850 nm, one illuminant. Reflected and total spectral radiance factors are also provided on diskette. $2,130
A33-06-04-34 Additional illuminant (A33-06-04-32). $300
A33-06-04-36 Additional bispectral luminescent radiance factor data, on diskette
(A33-06-04-32).
$250
A33-06-04-38 As per A33-06-04-32 except reflected radiance factors only. $910

Total spectral reflectance factors, sphere geometry (8°:d, 8°:t)

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-04-40 Diffuse-only (8°:d) from 300 nm to 850 nm, one illuminant. Reflected and total spectral reflectance factors are also provided on diskette. $2,130
A33-06-04-41 Total (8°:t) from 300 nm to 850 nm, one illuminant. Reflected and total spectral reflectance factors are also provided on diskette. $2,130
A33-06-04-42 Additional illuminant (A33-06-04-40 or A33-06-04-41). $300
A33-06-04-44 Additional bispectral luminescent reflectance factor data, on diskette (A33-06-04-40 or A33-06-04-41). $250

Measurement of detectors, radiometers and photometers

Spectral responsivity calibrations are traceable to NRC absolute radiometers. Measurements are performed using continuous (i.e. not chopped) radiation. The overall expanded uncertainty (k=2) of routine calibrations ranges from 0.25 percent to 5 percent, depending upon the wavelength range and the type of detector, and excluding detector-specific effects.

For absolute calibrations, a minimum detector size of 2.0 mm is normally required, but smaller detectors can sometimes be calibrated. Special set-up charges apply to photomultipliers. High-accuracy calibrations of specially-selected silicon and germanium photodiodes are also available upon special request. The minimum detector size for these calibrations is 5 mm. The combined standard uncertainty (1σ) for these measurements is about 0.3 percent for silicon (400 nm to 1000 nm) and 0.35 percent for germanium (1000 nm to 1600 nm). Detectors will be measured at 10 nm steps within the specified service range; however alternate, step sizes can be measured upon request and at additional cost. Detectors will be measured with no (zero) reverse bias; however reverse bias can be applied upon request, with additional costs for set up. Additional costs may apply for some non-standard, extensive physical set-ups.

Other detector characterization measurements are available: temperature coefficients of responsivity; linearity (dynamic range of approximately six decades); spatial uniformity of responsivity; angular variation of responsivity (underfill mode); and calibration of shortwave and longwave UV meters. The following services are for one receiver of a given model.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-05-04 Absolute spectral responsivity at 10 nm intervals for one device in one of the following spectral ranges. Range to be specified at the time the service is requested.
  1. UV-VIS (range: 250 nm to 700 nm).
  2. VIS-IR (range: 400 nm to 1200 nm).
  3. FIR1 (range: 700 nm to 1800 nm).
  4. FIR2 (range: 1200 nm to 2700 nm).
$1,275

Gloss measurements

Specular gloss calibrations are performed on the NRC reference glossmeter using a specially-developed NRC quartz wedge as the primary standard. This measurement service is available for 20°, 60° and 85° geometries according to ASTM D523 and ISO 2813 specifications, with an uncertainty of 0.3 gloss units, and at 45° geometry according to ISO 7668 specifications. The following fees are for non-metallic specimens. Additional charges apply for mirror samples.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-06-01 Gloss at one geometry (20°, 60°, or 85°), one sample. $1,025
A33-06-06-02 Each additional sample, calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-06-01. $315
A33-06-06-10 Gloss at 45°, one sample. $1,195
A33-06-06-12 Each additional sample, calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-06-10. $410
A33-06-06-14 Gloss at 75°, one sample. $1,095
A33-06-06-16 Additional sample, calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-06-14. $620

Colorimetry of video displays

Colour characterization of customer's video displays (CRT, FPD, etc.) is available upon special arrangement. The reference spectroradiometer used at NRC for these measurements is traceable to NRC primary photometric standards. The following services are available:

  • measurement of the tristimulus values (including absolute luminance) of the RGB primaries of the display;
  • measurement and mathematical modelling of the relationship between digital data and radiometric data in accordance with CIE recommendations (CIE Pub. 122-1996).

In addition, calibration and verification services are available for colorimeters used for the routine measurement and adjustment of video displays of given types. This involves determining the relationship between the colorimeter's built-in colour matching functions and the CIE colour-matching functions.

Calibration number Description Fee
A33-06-07-02 Custom colorimetric services for digital imaging devices. Hourly charge
A33-06-09-01 Custom service for video display. Fee on request

Contact

Dr. Li-Lin Tay
Telephone: 613-993-3919
Email: Li-Lin.Tay@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

Business Office: MSS-SMEBusiness-Affaires@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

Date modified: