Photometry and radiometry
Unless otherwise specified, the uncertainties quoted in the descriptions below are expanded uncertainties representing a confidence level of approximately 95 percent. They were obtained by multiplying the standard overall uncertainty (one standard deviation) by a coverage factor of k=2.
The primary standard for realizing luminous intensity (candela) is an NRC-built electrically calibrated thermal detector (absolute radiometer) equipped with V(λ)-correcting filters. Secondary standards of luminous intensity and total luminous flux are in the form of carefully selected lamps traceable to the NRC absolute radiometers. The primary scales of spectral transmittance, reflectance and gloss are based on specially built NRC reference instruments.
Calibration facilities include:
- cryogenic and room-temperature absolute radiometers for first level spectral calibrations of transfer standard detectors;
- automatic spectroradiometers;
- lamp aging facilities;
- photometric benches and an integrating sphere;
- an automated spectral responsivity measurement facility;
- automated detector characterization facilities for linearity, spatial and angular variation of detector responsivity;
- a reference glossmeter;
- an absolute reflectometer for ISO 2469 calibrations of diffuse reflectance;
- a two-monochromator reference spectrofluorimeter, for calibrations of fluorescent reflecting materials;
- several automated spectrophotometers equipped with a variety of sampling accessories;
- an observation booth equipped with artificial daylight for visual assessments of colour differences between coloured materials; and
- a computer-controlled CRT-based visual colorimeter for research into improved colorimetry.
Fees for service
If you wish to order a calibration service, please request a quote from the following technical contact:
Dr. Joanne Zwinkels
Note that the calibration costs quoted DO NOT include shipping, insurance or the cost of a customs broker. The client must arrange and pay for these services separately.
|A33-06-00-00||Custom photometric or radiometric metrology services||Fee on request|
|A33-06-00-01||Handling fee. A charge is levied for any instrument found to be unsuitable for calibration. This fee covers opening, inspection and return and is based on the work done prior to discovery of the fault.||$250|
Photometry of incandescent lamps
The NRC scale of luminous intensity is based on the international 1979 CGPM definition of the candela using NRC absolute radiometers and is maintained on a group of specially selected Osram Wi41/G incandescent lamps. The standard uncertainty (1σ) of the primary luminous intensity scale is 0.5 percent. The NRC scale of luminous flux is based on measurements traceable to an NRC platinum blackbody source and is maintained on a set of 200 Watt and 500 Watt GEC incandescent lamps. The standard uncertainty (1σ) of the primary luminous flux scale is 1.5 percent. The following services describe routine photometric measurements that are available. Other specialized photometric tests may be performed upon special request.
Lumen standards - for use in sphere photometers
These services cover the determination of the luminous flux (lumens) from one or more incandescent lamps at one voltage or current per lamp, up to 1000 watts, as follows:
|A33-06-01-01||One lamp at one voltage or current.||$2,020|
|A33-06-01-02||Each additional lamp of the same size and type, supplied at the same time and calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-01-01.||$400|
Luminous intensity standards - for use on a horizontal bar photometer
The horizontal luminous intensity (candelas) of one or more incandescent lamps is determined in a fixed direction at one or more voltages or currents per lamp, as follows:
|A33-06-01-03||One lamp at one voltage or current.||$2,020|
|A33-06-01-04||Each additional lamp of the same size and type, supplied at the same time and calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-01-03.||$400|
|A33-06-01-05||Each additional voltage or current, requested at the same time as A33-06-01-03, per lamp.||$605|
Aging of incandescent lamps
To ensure that lamps are stable enough to be used as standards, they should be operated or aged for a number of hours. These services cover the aging of lamps in a controlled environment, as follows:
|A33-06-01-06||Initial set-up charge for one lamp.||$1,005|
|A33-06-01-07||Set-up charge for each additional lamp of the same size and type as A33-06-01-06.||$200|
|A33-06-01-08||Hourly charge for aging each lamp (A33-06-01-06 and A33-06-01-07).||$15|
Colour temperature of incandescent lamps
The colour temperature or the voltage for a specified colour temperature on one or more incandescent lamps can be determined within the range 2000 kelvin to 2856 kelvin, as follows:
|A33-06-02-01||Colour temperature of one lamp or the voltage for one colour temperature of one lamp.||$2,020|
|A33-06-02-02||Each additional lamp at the same colour temperature measured at the same time as A33-06-02-01.||$400|
|A33-06-02-03||Each additional colour temperature on the same lamp measured at the same time as A33-06-02-01.||$185|
Calibration of photometric instruments and sources
Illuminance meters and luminance meters are calibrated photometrically on a custom basis using NRC luminous intensity standards. Special luminance tests are also available for displays, sphere sources and other luminance sources.
Photometry of solid state lighting (SSL) modules
Photometric and spectroradiometic calibrations and measurements are available for user-supplied LED and SSL modules upon special request. LED-based sources may be calibrated photometrically on a custom basis using NRC total luminous flux standards and luminous intensity standards. Special illuminance and luminance measurements, including goniometric and spatial measurements, are available.
If you wish to order a calibration service, please request a quote from the following technical contact:
Dr. Arnold Gaertner
|A33-06-02-20||Illuminance meters.||Fee on request|
|A33-06-02-30||Luminance meters.||Fee on request|
Spectophotometry and colorimetry
Geometric conditions of the irradiated and reflected rays in the NRC BRDF facility
NRC has developed national reference instruments to provide traceability for both in-plane and out-of-plane reflectance and bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of surfaces. The NRC Robot-based BRDF facility uses a high resolution diode array spectroradiometer for rapid detection and provides the complete reflection indicatrix (3D) of reflecting samples over the spectral range of 380 nm to 780 nm. These spectral BRDF measurements provide total colour and appearance (gloss, texture, haze, etc.) management of gonioapparent or special effect coatings and pigments used in manufactured colored goods, such as cars, appliances, high-end packaging, and cosmetics, as well as applications in anti-counterfeitng, remote sensing, machine vision, cultural heritage, virtual reality and medical imaging.
Spectral diffuse transmittance and reflectance factors
Diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements are routinely available over the wavelength range 250 nm to 2200 nm and from 5000 cm-1 to 600 cm-1. Arrangements can also be made to calibrate samples over an extended wavelength range from 200 nm to 2500 nm, but this requires supplementary measurement/validation steps and additional charges apply.
|A33-06-03-01A||Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance or transmittance, 400 nm to 700 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample.||$675|
|A33-06-03-01B||Diffuse-only reflectance or transmittance, 400 nm to 700 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample.||$675|
|A33-06-03-02A||Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 850 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample.||$820|
|A33-06-03-02B||Diffuse-only reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 850 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample.||$820|
|A33-06-03-03A||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-01A.||$280|
|A33-06-03-03B||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-01B.||$280|
|A33-06-03-03C||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-02A.||$535|
|A33-06-03-03D||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-02B.||$535|
|A33-06-03-04A||Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 2500 nm at 10 nm intervals, one sample.||$1,610|
|A33-06-03-04B||Diffuse-only reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 2500 nm at 10 nm intervals, one sample.||$1,610|
|A33-06-03-04C||Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 2200 nm at 10 nm intervals, one sample.||$1,495|
|A33-06-03-04D||Diffuse-only reflectance or transmittance, 250 nm to 2200 nm at 10 nm intervals, one sample.||$1,495|
|A33-06-03-04E||Each additional sample of A33-06-03-04A.||$920|
|A33-06-03-04F||Each additional sample of A33-06-03-04B.||$920|
|A33-06-03-04G||Each additional sample of A33-06-03-04C.||$920|
|A33-03-03-04H||Each additional sample of A33-06-03-04D.||$920|
|A33-06-03-05A||Total (regular and diffuse) reflectance, 5000 cm-1 to 600 cm-1.||$2,300|
|A33-06-03-05B||Diffuse (non-specular) reflectance, 5000 cm-1 to 600 cm-1.||$2,300|
|A33-06-03-05C||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-05B.||$1,635|
Spectral regular transmittance factors
(A33-06-03-06 to A33-06-03-10E) Calibrations of regular transmittance are traceable to the NRC reference spectrophotometer, which has an uncertainty of 2.5 parts in 104 in the visible range and 4.0 parts in 104 in the near-infrared range. Routine calibrations are performed on high-precision research spectrophotometers over the wavelength range 190 nm to 3200 nm, with a best measurement capability (relative) of 0.2 percent. Services are for calibrations using monochromatic irradiation. Arrangements can be made for special setups and supplementary measurements. Additional charges may apply for non-standard measurements, such as polarizing, highly spectrally selective, high transmission density, or small size samples. Spectral regular transmittance factors are measured for specified wavelength ranges, for one or more samples, as follows:
|A33-06-03-06||From 380 nm to 760 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample.||$660|
|A33-06-03-06A||Each additional sample of A33-06-03-06.||$350|
|A33-06-03-07||From 190 nm to 860 nm at 5 nm intervals, one sample.||$755|
|A33-06-03-07A||Client-specified single wavelength (UV-VIS-NIR range).||$430|
|A33-06-03-07B||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-07.||$470|
|A33-06-03-09||From 190 nm to 3200 nm at 10 nm intervals.||$1,115|
|A33-06-03-10||Each additional sample (A33-06-03-09).||$690|
|A33-06-03-10A||Re-certify NIST SRM 930 filters (set of three).||$800|
|A33-06-03-10B||Re-certify NIST SRM 1930 filters (set of three).||$970|
|A33-06-03-10C||NG-11 glass filter and calibration at 4000 cm-1 to 2000 cm-1. This service includes the purchase of the glass filter.||$1,615|
|A33-06-03-10D||Wavelength absorption peaks, 250 nm to 900 nm.||$805|
|A33-06-03-10E||Wavenumber, polystyrene film, 4000 cm-1 to 800 cm-1.||$1,070|
|A33-06-03-10F||Re-certify NIST SRM 2031 filters (set of 3) at 10 wavelengths in the UV and visible range.||$1,770|
|A33-06-03-10G||Re-certify each additional filter of A33-06-03-10A, A33-06-03-10B or A33-06-03-10F (UV or visible range).||$400|
|A33-06-03-10H||Re-certify each additional wavelength of A33-06-03-10A, A33-06-03-10B or A33-06-03-10F.||$200|
|A33-06-03-10I||Calibration of metal-on-quartz UV filters (set of 5) at 5 wavelengths in the UV range.||$1,770|
Absolute specular reflectance - Near-normal incidence
The following services measure the absolute specular reflectance at near-normal incidence (usually 8°) for one or more samples for specified wavelength ranges and for a minimum and maximum sample size of 35 mm diameter and 50 mm diameter, respectively, and for a nominal reflectance exceeding 10 percent. Arrangements can be made to calibrate samples of smaller size or lower reflectance, but additional charges may apply.
|A33-06-03-11A||Spectral reflectance, visible range, 380 nm to 760 nm.||$1,025|
|A33-06-03-11B||Spectral reflectance, UV-Vis range, 220 nm to 850 nm.||$1,210|
|A33-06-03-11C||Spectral reflectance, Vis-NIR range, 380 nm to 2500 nm.||$1,575|
|A33-06-03-11D||Spectral reflectance, UV-Vis-NIR range, 220 nm to 2500 nm.||$1,760|
|A33-06-03-12A||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-11A.||$795|
|A33-06-03-12B||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-11B.||$880|
|A33-06-03-12C||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-11C.||$1,010|
|A33-06-03-12D||Each additional sample for A33-06-03-11D.||$1,150|
Calculation of colorimetric quantities
In the following services, various colorimetric quantities are calculated from the spectrophotometric data. Calculations of other quantities (e.g. solar transmittance and reflectance) are available upon special request.
|A33-06-03-13||Tristimulus values and chromaticity coordinate's (one sample).||$145|
|A33-06-03-14||Colour differences (one sample).||$220|
|A33-06-03-14A||CIE whiteness and CIE tint, ISO brightness.||Fee on request|
Calibration of white reflectance standards according to ISO 2469 and ISO 2470 standards
The following services provide for the calibration of white reflectance standards for the pulp and paper industry, according to ISO 2469 and ISO 2470 specifications.
|A33-06-03-15A||Diffuse reflectance, 380 - 760 nm and ISO brightness.||$1,390|
|A33-06-03-15B||Diffuse reflectance, 380 - 1100 nm and ISO brightness.||$1,760|
|A33-06-03-16A||Additional sample of A33-06-03-15A.||$870|
|A33-06-03-16B||Additional sample of A33-06-03-15B.||$970|
Spectral radiance factors, 0°:45° geometry
The NRC scale of absolute 0°:45° spectral radiance factors is traceable to master NRC pressed tablets of polytetrafluoroethylene calibrated for 45°:0° geometry by NIST. The expanded (k=2) uncertainty of these NRC calibrations is better than 0.7 percent.
|A33-06-03-26||Bidirectional radiance factors, 360 - 760 nm.||$930|
|A33-06-03-27||Additional sample of A33-06-03-26.||$475|
|A33-06-03-28||Bidirectional radiance factors, 360 - 1100 nm.||$1,120|
|A33-06-03-29||Additional sample of A33-06-03-28.||$565|
Calibrated stainless steel reflectance standard
NRC calibrates and issues a stainless steel reflectance standard for use in calibrating the specular reflectance scale of spectrophotometers.
|A33-06-03-40||Stainless steel reflectance standard and calibration at 250 nm to 2500 nm, 8° incidence. Calibrations at other geometries are available upon special request.||$2,570|
|A33-06-03-42||Calibration at oblique incidence, specified spectral range.||Fee on request|
Absolute specular reflectance at 10° to 80° incidence
(s- and p-polarized)
|A33-06-03-50||380 nm to 780 nm, one geometry, one sample.||$1,210|
|A33-06-03-50A||Additional sample for A33-06-03-50.||$845|
|A33-06-03-51||220 nm to 380 nm, one geometry, one sample.||$1,210|
|A33-06-03-51A||Additional sample for A33-06-03-51.||$845|
|A33-06-03-52||220 nm to 780 nm, one geometry, one sample.||$1,880|
|A33-06-03-52A||Additional sample for A33-06-03-52.||$1,045|
|A33-06-03-54||380 nm to 2300 nm, one geometry, one sample.||$1,850|
|A33-06-03-54A||Additional sample for A33-06-03-54.||$1,165|
|A33-06-03-56||220 nm to 2300 nm, one geometry, one sample.||$2,645|
|A33-06-03-56A||Additional sample for A33-06-03-56.||$1,725|
Spectral irradiance calibrations are available on user-supplied lamps from 250 nm to 2500 nm.
The NRC scale of spectral irradiance from 300 nm to 700 nm is based on the world-mean scale resulting from a 1973 international comparison of spectral irradiance scales; the scale from 700 nm to 1600 nm is based upon NRC absolute radiometers; and the ranges from 250 nm to 300 nm and 1600 nm to 2500 nm are based upon NIST spectral irradiance standards.
Spectral radiance calibrations are also available on user-supplied lamps. The spectral radiance calibrations are derived from NRC spectral irradiance standards or NIST spectral radiance standards.
Total Spectral Flux, Spectral Irradiance and Spectral Radiance calibrations are available for user-supplied LED and SSL modules upon special request.
Spectral irradiance (incandescent lamp)
The following services cover measurements in specified wavelength ranges of the spectral irradiance, from an incandescent lamp at a fixed distance and in a given direction.
|A33-06-04-01||350 to 1100 nm at 10 nm intervals, one lamp.||$4,725|
|A33-06-04-02||800 to 1600 nm at 10 nm intervals, one lamp.||$4,725|
|A33-06-04-03||From 300 nm to 350 nm.||Fee on request|
|A33-06-04-04||From 1600 nm to 2500 nm.||Fee on request|
|A33-06-04-05||Additional Lamp of each of above four.||Fee on request|
Spectral radiance (of a uniform incandescent lamp)
These services measure the spectral radiance of a uniform incandescent lamp, in a given direction, for specified wavelength ranges and intervals.
|A33-06-04-09||From 380 nm to 780 nm at 2 nm intervals.||$3,295|
|A33-06-04-10||From 380 to 1060 nm at 4 nm intervals.||$3,295|
Spectral fluorescence calibration services
Total spectral radiance factors, two monochromator method
The measurement facilities in spectrophotometry include two reference instruments based upon the two-monochromator method and conforming to CIE and ASTM colorimetry standards for absolute radiometric calibrations of fluorescent reflecting materials using different illumination and viewing geometries. The NRC Reference Spectrofluorimeter employs a measurement geometry of 45° annular illumination and 0° viewing (45°a:0°), and an operating range of 250 nm to 1050 nm. The NRC Reference Goniospectrofluorimeter equipped with a 300 mm diameter integrating sphere accessory employs a measurement geometry of near-normal (8°) incidence and diffuse viewing with the specular component either excluded (8°:d) or included (8°:t); its operating range is 250 nm to 850 nm. The overall uncertainty of calibrations of total and reflected radiance reflectance factors of fluorescent standards is 1 percent (excluding sample-dependent effects).
Total spectral radiance factors, bidirectional geometry (45°:0°) calibration services
|A33-06-04-32||From 300 nm to 850 nm, one illuminant. Reflected and total spectral radiance factors are also provided on diskette.||$2,130|
|A33-06-04-34||Additional illuminant (A33-06-04-32).||$300|
|A33-06-04-36||Additional bispectral luminescent radiance factor data, on diskette
|A33-06-04-38||As per A33-06-04-32 except reflected radiance factors only.||$910|
Total spectral reflectance factors, sphere geometry (8°:d, 8°:t)
|A33-06-04-40||Diffuse-only (8°:d) from 300 nm to 850 nm, one illuminant. Reflected and total spectral reflectance factors are also provided on diskette.||$2,130|
|A33-06-04-41||Total (8°:t) from 300 nm to 850 nm, one illuminant. Reflected and total spectral reflectance factors are also provided on diskette.||$2,130|
|A33-06-04-42||Additional illuminant (A33-06-04-40 or A33-06-04-41).||$300|
|A33-06-04-44||Additional bispectral luminescent reflectance factor data, on diskette (A33-06-04-40 or A33-06-04-41).||$250|
Measurement of detectors, radiometers and photometers
Spectral responsivity calibrations are traceable to NRC absolute radiometers. Measurements are performed using continuous (i.e. not chopped) radiation. The overall expanded uncertainty (k=2) of routine calibrations ranges from 0.25 percent to 5 percent, depending upon the wavelength range and the type of detector, and excluding detector-specific effects.
For absolute calibrations, a minimum detector size of 2.0 mm is normally required, but smaller detectors can sometimes be calibrated. Special set-up charges apply to photomultipliers. High-accuracy calibrations of specially-selected silicon and germanium photodiodes are also available upon special request. The minimum detector size for these calibrations is 5 mm. The combined standard uncertainty (1σ) for these measurements is about 0.3 percent for silicon (400 nm to 1000 nm) and 0.35 percent for germanium (1000 nm to 1600 nm). Detectors will be measured at 10 nm steps within the specified service range; however alternate, step sizes can be measured upon request and at additional cost. Detectors will be measured with no (zero) reverse bias; however reverse bias can be applied upon request, with additional costs for set up. Additional costs may apply for some non-standard, extensive physical set-ups.
Other detector characterization measurements are available: temperature coefficients of responsivity; linearity (dynamic range of approximately six decades); spatial uniformity of responsivity; angular variation of responsivity (underfill mode); and calibration of shortwave and longwave UV meters. The following services are for one receiver of a given model.
|A33-06-05-04||Absolute spectral responsivity at 10 nm intervals for one device in one of the following spectral ranges. Range to be specified at the time the service is requested.
Specular gloss calibrations are performed on the NRC reference glossmeter using a specially-developed NRC quartz wedge as the primary standard. This measurement service is available for 20°, 60° and 85° geometries according to ASTM D523 and ISO 2813 specifications, with an uncertainty of 0.3 gloss units, and at 45° geometry according to ISO 7668 specifications. The following fees are for non-metallic specimens. Additional charges apply for mirror samples.
|A33-06-06-01||Gloss at one geometry (20°, 60°, or 85°), one sample.||$1,025|
|A33-06-06-02||Each additional sample, calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-06-01.||$315|
|A33-06-06-10||Gloss at 45°, one sample.||$1,195|
|A33-06-06-12||Each additional sample, calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-06-10.||$410|
|A33-06-06-14||Gloss at 75°, one sample.||$1,095|
|A33-06-06-16||Additional sample, calibrated under the same conditions as A33-06-06-14.||$620|
Colorimetry of video displays
Colour characterization of customer's video displays (CRT, FPD, etc.) is available upon special arrangement. The reference spectroradiometer used at NRC for these measurements is traceable to NRC primary photometric standards. The following services are available:
- measurement of the tristimulus values (including absolute luminance) of the RGB primaries of the display;
- measurement and mathematical modelling of the relationship between digital data and radiometric data in accordance with CIE recommendations (CIE Pub. 122-1996).
In addition, calibration and verification services are available for colorimeters used for the routine measurement and adjustment of video displays of given types. This involves determining the relationship between the colorimeter's built-in colour matching functions and the CIE colour-matching functions.
|A33-06-07-02||Custom colorimetric services for digital imaging devices.||Hourly charge|
|A33-06-09-01||Custom service for video display.||Fee on request|
Dr. Li-Lin Tay
Business Office: MSS-SMEBusiness-Affaires@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
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